JEN-1Research Paper

Text-Guided Universal Music Generation with Omnidirectional Diffusion Models


Music generation has attracted growing interest with the advancement of deep generative models. However, generating music conditioned on textual descriptions, known as text-to-music, remains challenging due to the complexity of musical structures and high sampling rate requirements. Despite the task's significance, prevailing generative models exhibit limitations in music quality, computational efficiency, and generalization. This paper introduces JEN-1, a universal high-fidelity model for text-to-music generation. JEN-1 is a diffusion model incorporating both autoregressive and non-autoregressive training. Through incontext learning, JEN-1 performs various generation tasks including text-guided music generation, music inpainting, and continuation. Evaluations demonstrate JEN-1's superior performance over state-of-the-art methods in text-music alignment and music quality while maintaining computational efficiency.

JEN-1Research Paper

1. Introduction

Music, as an artistic expression comprising harmony, melody and rhythm, holds great cultural significance and appeal to humans. Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress in music generation with the rise of deep generative models (Liu et al., 2023; Kreuk et al., 2022; Agostinelli et al., 2023). However, generating high-fidelity and realistic music still poses unique challenges compared to other modalities. Firstly, music utilizes the full frequency spectrum, requiring high sampling rates like 44.1KHz stereo to capture the intricacies. This is in contrast to speech which focuses on linguistic content and uses lower sampling rates (e.g. 16kHz). Secondly, the blend of multiple instruments and the arrangement of melodies and harmonies result in highly complex structures. With humans being sensitive to musical dissonance, music generation allows little room for imperfections. Most critically, controllability over attributes like key, genre and melody is indispensable for creators to realize their artistic vision.

The intersection of text and music, known as text-to-music generation, offers valuable capabilities to bridge free-form textual descriptions and musical compositions. However, existing text-to-music models still exhibit notable limitations. As illustrated in Table 1, some models (Liu et al., 2023; Ghosal et al., 2023) operate on spectrogram representations, incurring fidelity loss from audio conversion. Others employ inefficient autoregressive generation or cascaded models (Agostinelli et al., 2023; Copet et al., 2023; Huang et al., 2023a). More restrictively, their training objectives are confined to single task, lacking the versatility of humans who can freely manipulate music.

To overcome these limitations, we introduce JEN-1, a text-to-music model combining efficiency, quality and controllability. Firstly, JEN-1 uses a masked autoencoder and diffusion model to directly generate high-fidelity 48kHz stereo audio, circumventing spectrogram conversion losses. Secondly, multi-task training on text-to-music, inpainting and continuation enhances model versatility.

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Table 1
Comparison between state-of-the-art music generative models.
High sample rateYesNoNoNoNo
2-channel stereoYesNoNoNoNo
Non-cascade modelYesNoYesYesNo
Single-task trainingYesYesYesYesYes
Multi-task trainingYesNoNoNoNo
JEN-1Research Paper

Thirdly, JEN-1 integrates autoregressive and non-autoregressive diffusion to balance dependency modeling and generation efficiency.

We extensively evaluate JEN-1 against state-of-the-art baselines across objective metrics and human evaluations. Results demonstrate JEN-1 produces music of perceptually higher quality (85.7/100) compared to the current best methods (83.8/100). Ablations validate the efficacy of each technical component. More importantly, human judges confirm JEN-1 generates music highly aligned with text prompts in a melodically and harmonically pleasing fashion.

In summary, the key contributions of this work are:

  • We propose JEN-1 as a solution to the challenging text-to-music generation task. JEN-1 employs in-context learning and is trained with multi-task objectives, enabling music generation, music continuation, and music inpainting within a single model.
  • JEN-1 utilizes an extremely efficient approach by directly modeling waveforms, avoiding the conversion loss associated with spectrograms. It incorporates a masked autoencoder and diffusion model, yielding high-quality music at a 48kHz sampling rate.
  • Our JEN-1 model integrates both autoregressive diffusion mode and non-autoregressive mode to improve sequential dependency and enhance sequence generation concurrently. These results in melodically aligned music that adheres to textual descriptions while maintaining high fidelity.
  • Our paper presents a significant advancement in the field of text-to-music generation, offering a powerful, efficient, and controllable framework for generating high-quality music aligned with textual prompts and melodic structures. We conduct comprehensive evaluations, both objective and involving human judgment, to thoroughly assess the crucial design choices underlying our method.
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3. Preliminary

3.1  Conditional Generative Models

In the field of content synthesis, the implementation of conditional generative models often involves applying either autoregressive (AR) (Agostinelli et al., 2023; Copet et al., 2023) or nonautoregressive (NAR) (Liu et al., 2023; Ghosal et al., 2023) paradigms. The inherent structure of language, where each word functions as a distinct token and sentences are sequentially constructed from these tokens, makes the AR paradigm a more natural choice for language modeling. Thus, in the domain of Natural Language Processing (NLP), transformer-based models, e.g., GPT series, have emerged as the prevailing approach for text generation tasks. AR methods (Agostinelli et al., 2023; Copet et al., 2023) rely on predicting future tokens based on visible history tokens. The likelihood is represented by:

yi represents the i-th token in sequence y( 1 )

where$\boldsymbol{y}_i$ represents the $i$-th token in sequence$\boldsymbol{y}$.

Conversely, in the domain of computer vision (CV), where images have no explicit time series structure and images typically occupy continuous space, employing an NAR approach is deemed more suitable. Notably, the NAR approach, such as stable diffusion, has emerged as the dominant method for addressing image generation tasks. NAR approaches assume conditional independence among latent embeddings and generate them uniformly without distinction during prediction. This results in a likelihood expressed as:

preliminary( 2 )

Although the parallel generation approach of NAR offers a notable speed advantage, it falls short in terms of capturing long-term consistency.

In this work, we argue that audio data can be regarded as a hybrid form of data. It exhibits characteristics akin to images, as it resides within a continuous space that enables the modeling of high-quality music. Additionally, audio shares similarities with text in its nature as a time-series data. Consequently, we propose a novel approach in our JEN-1 design, which entails the amalgamation of both the auto-regressive and non-autoregressive modes into a cohesive omnidirectional diffusion model.

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Figure 1

Illustration of the JEN-1 multi-task training strategy, including the text-guided music generation task, the music inpainting task, and the music continuation task. JEN-1 achieves the in-context learning task generalization by concatenating the noise and masked audio in a channelwise manner. JEN-1 integrates both the bidirectional mode to gather comprehensive context and the unidirectional mode to capture sequential dependency.

Task 1

Text-guided Music Generation

Task 2

Music In-painting

Task 3

Music Continuation

text-guided music generation
text-guided music generation in-painting
text-guided music generation
JEN-1Research Paper

3.2  Diffusion models for audio generation

Diffusion models (Ho et al., 2020) constitute probabilistic models explicitly developed for the purpose of learning a data distribution $p(\boldsymbol{x})$. The overall learning of diffusion models involves a forward diffusion process and a gradual denoising process, each consisting of a sequence of $T$ steps that act as a Markov Chain. In the forward diffusion process, a fixed linear Gaussian model is employed to gradually perturb the initial random variable $\boldsymbol{z}_0$ until it converges to the standard Gaussian distribution. This process can be formally articulated as follows,

diffusion model 1( 3 )

where $\alpha_i$ is a coefficient that monotonically decreases with timestep$t$, and $\boldsymbol{z}_t$ is the latent state at timestep $t$ . The reverse process is to initiate from standard Gaussian noise and progressively utilize the denoising transition $p_{\boldsymbol{\theta}}\left(\boldsymbol{z}_{t-1} \mid \boldsymbol{z}_t ; \boldsymbol{x}\right)$ for generation,

diffusion - model 2( 4 )

where the mean $\mu_{\boldsymbol{\theta}}$ and variance $\Sigma_{\boldsymbol{\theta}}$ are learned from the model parameterized by $\theta$. We use predefined variance without trainable parameters following (Rombach et al., 2022; Liu et al., 2023). After simply expanding and re-parameterizing, our training objective of the conditional diffusion model can be denoted as,

diffusion model 3( 5 )

where $t$ is uniformly sampled from $\{1, \ldots, T\}$, $\epsilon$ is the ground truth of the sampled noise, and $\epsilon_\theta(\cdot)$ is the noise predicted by the diffusion model. The conventional diffusion model is characterized as a non-autoregressive model, which poses challenges in effectively capturing sequential dependencies in music flow. To address this limitation, we propose the joint omnidirectional diffusion model JEN-1, an integrated framework that leverages both unidirectional and bidirectional training. These adaptations allow for precise control over the contextual information used to condition predictions, enhancing the model's ability to capture sequential dependencies in music data.

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4. Method

In this research paper, we propose a novel model called JEN-1, which utilizes an omnidirectional 1D diffusion model. JEN-1 combines bidirectional and unidirectional modes, offering a unified approach for universal music generation conditioned on either text or music representations. The model operates in a noise-robust latent embedding space obtained from a masked audio autoencoder, enabling high-fidelity reconstruction from latent embeddings with a low frame rate(§ 4.1). In contrast to prior generation models that use discrete tokens or involve multiple serial stages, JEN-1 introduces a unique modeling framework capable of generating continuous, high-fidelity music using a single model. JEN-1 effectively utilizes both autoregressive training to improve sequential dependency and non-autoregressive training to enhance sequence generation concurrently (§ 4.2). By employing in-context learning and multi-task learning, one of the significant advantages of JEN-1 is its support for conditional generation based on either text or melody, enhancing its adaptability to various creative scenarios (§ 4.3). This flexibility allows the model to be applied to different music generation tasks, making it a versatile and powerful tool for music composition and production.

Algorithm 1

4.1  Masked autoencoder for high fidelity latent representation learning

High Fidelity Neural Audio Latent Representation. To facilitate the training on limited computational resources without compromising quality and fidelity, our approach JEN-1 employs a highfidelity audio autoencoder $\mathcal{E}$ to compress original audio into latent representations $\boldsymbol{z}$. Formally, given a two-channel stereo audio $\boldsymbol{x} \in \mathbb{R}^{L \times 2}$, the encoder $\mathcal{E}$ encodes $\boldsymbol{x}$ into a latent representation $\boldsymbol{z}=\mathcal{E}(\boldsymbol{x})$, where $\boldsymbol{z} \in \mathbb{R}^{\frac{L}{h} \times c}$. $L$ is the sequence length of given music, $h$ is the hop size and c is the dimension of latent embedding. While the decoder reconstructs the audio $\tilde{\boldsymbol{x}}=\mathcal{D}(\boldsymbol{z})=\mathcal{D}(\mathcal{E}(\boldsymbol{x}))$ from the latent representation. Our audio compression model is inspired and modified based on previous work (Zeghidour et al., 2021; Défossez et al., 2022), which consists of an autoencoder trained by a combination of a reconstruction loss over both time and frequency domains and a patch-based adversarial objective operating at different resolutions. This ensures that the audio reconstructions are confined to the original audio manifold by enforcing local realism and avoids muffled effects introduced by relying solely on sample-space losses with L1 or L2 objectives. Unlike prior endeavors (Zeghidour et al., 2021; Défossez et al., 2022) that employ a quantization layer to produce the discrete codes, our model directly extracts the continuous embeddings without any quality-reducing loss due to quantization. This utilization of powerful autoencoder representations enables us to achieve a nearly optimal balance between complexity reduction and high-frequency detail preservation, leading to a significant improvement in music fidelity.

Noise-robust Masked Autoencoder. To further enhance the robustness of decoder $\mathcal{D}$, we propose a masking strategy, which effectively reduces noises and mitigates artifacts, yielding superior-quality audio reconstruction. In our training procedure, we adopt a specific technique wherein $p=5\%$ of the intermediate latent embeddings are randomly masked before feeding into the decoder. By doing so, we enable the decoder to acquire proficiency in reconstructing superior-quality data even when exposed to corrupted inputs. We train the autoencoder on 48kHz stereophonic audios with large batch size and employ an exponential moving average to aggregate the weights. As a result of these enhancements, the performance of our audio autoencoder surpasses that of the original model in all evaluated reconstruction metrics, as shown in Table 2. Consequently, we adopt this audio autoencoder for all of our subsequent experiments.

Normalizing Latent Embedding Space. To avoid arbitrarily scaled latent spaces, (Rombach et al., 2022) found it is crucial to achieve better performance by estimating the component-wise variance and re-scale the latent$\boldsymbol{z}$ to have a unit standard deviation. In contrast to previous approaches that only estimate the component-wise variance, JEN-1 employs a straightforward yet effective postprocessing technique to address the challenge of anisotropy in latent embeddings as shown in Algorithm 1. Specially, we channel-wisely perform zero-mean normalization on the latent embedding, and then transform the covariance matrix to the identity matrix via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) algorithm. We implement a batch-incremental equivalent algorithm to calculate these transformation statistics. Additionally, we incorporate a dimension reduction strategy to enhance the whitening process further and improve the overall effectiveness of our approach.

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Figure 1

Illustration of bidirectional mode and unidirectional mode for convolutional block and transformer block. In the unidirectional mode, we use causal padding in the convolutional block and masked self-attention mask to attend only to the left context.

Illustration of bidirectional mode and unidirectional mode for convolutional block and transformer block
JEN-1Research Paper

4.2  Omnidirectional Latent Diffusion Models

In some prior approaches (Liu et al., 2023; Ghosal et al., 2023), time-frequency conversion techniques, such as mel-spectrogram, have been employed for transforming the audio generation into an image generation problem. Nevertheless, we contend that this conversion from raw audio data to mel-spectrogram inevitably leads to a significant reduction in quality. To address this concern, JEN-1 directly leverages a temporal 1D efficient U-Net. This modified version of the Efficient U-Net (Saharia et al., 2022) allows us to effectively model the waveform and implement the required blocks in the diffusion model. The U-Net model's architecture comprises cascading down-sampling and up-sampling blocks interconnected via residual connections. Each down/up-sampling block consists of a down/upsampling layer, followed by a set of blocks that involve 1D temporal convolutional layers, and self/cross-attention layers. Both the stacked input and output are represented as latent sequences of length $L$, while the diffusion time $t$ is encoded as a single-time embedding vector that interacts with the model via the aforementioned combined layers within the down and up-sampling blocks. In the context of the U-Net model, the input consists of the noisy sample denoted as $x_t$, which is stacked with additional conditional information. The resulting output corresponds to the noise prediction $\epsilon$ during the diffusion process.

Task Generalization via In-context Learning. To achieve the goal of multi-task training objectives, we propose a novel omnidirectional latent diffusion model without explicitly changing the UNet architecture. JEN-1 formulates various music generation tasks as text-guided in-context learning tasks. The common goal of these in-context learning tasks is to produce diverse and realistic music that is coherent with the context music and has the correct style described by the text. For in-context learning objectives,e.g., music inpainting task, and music continuation task, additional masked music information, which the model is conditioned upon, can be extracted into latent embedding and stacked as additional channels in the input. More precisely, apart from the original latent channels, the U-Net block has 129 additional input channels (128 for the encoded masked audio and 1 for the mask itself).

From Bidirectional mode to Unidirectional mode. From Bidirectional mode to Unidirectional mode. To account for the inherent sequential characteristic of music, JEN-1 integrates the unidirectional diffusion mode by ensuring that the generation of latent on the right depends on the generated ones on the left, a mechanism achieved through employing a unidirectional self-attention mask and a causal padding mode in convolutional blocks. In general, the architecture of the omnidirectional diffusion model enables various input pathways, facilitating the integration of different types of data into the model, resulting in versatile and powerful capabilities for noise prediction and diffusion modeling. During training, JEN-1 could switch between a unidirectional mode and a bidirectional model without changing the architecture of the model. The parameter weight is shared for different learning objectives. As illustrated in Figure 2, JEN-1 could switch into the unidirectional (autoregressive) mode, i.e., the output variable depends only on its own previous values. We employ causal padding (Oord et al., 2016) in all 1D convolutional layers, padding with zeros in the front so that we can also predict the values of early time steps in the frame. In addition, we employ a triangular attention mask following (Vaswani et al., 2017), by padding and masking future tokens in the input received by the self-attention blocks.

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Table 2

Comparison with state-of-the-art text-to-music generation methods on MusicCaps test set.

Comparison methods table
JEN-1Research Paper

4.3  Unified Music Multi-task Training

In contrast to prior methods that solely rely on a single text-guided learning objective, our proposed framework, JEN-1, adopts a novel approach by simultaneously incorporating multiple generative learning objectives while sharing common parameters. As depicted in Figure 1, the training process encompasses three distinct music generation tasks: bidirectional text-guided music generation, bidirectional music inpainting, and unidirectional music continuation. The utilization of multi-task training is a notable aspect of our approach, allowing for a cohesive and unified training procedure across all desired music generation tasks. This approach enhances the model's ability to generalize across tasks, while also improving the handling of music sequential dependencies and the concurrent generation of sequences.

Text-guided Music Generation Task. In this task, we employ both the bidirectional and unidirectional modes. The bidirectional model allows all latent embeddings to attend to one another during the denoising process, thereby enabling the encoding of comprehensive contextual information from both preceding and succeeding directions. On the other hand, the unidirectional model restricts all latent embeddings to attend solely to their previous time counterparts, which facilitates the learning of temporal dependencies in music data. Moreover, for the purpose of preserving task consistency within the framework of U-Net stacked inputs, we concatenate a full-size mask alongside all-empty masked audio as the additional condition.

Music inpainting Task. In the domain of audio editing, inpainting denotes the process of restoring missing segments within the music. This restorative technique is predominantly employed to reconstruct corrupted audio from the past, as well as to eliminate undesired elements like noise and watermarks from musical compositions. In this task, we adopt the bidirectional mode in JEN-1. During the training phase, our approach involves simulating the music inpainting process by randomly generating audio masks with mask ratios ranging from 20% to 80%. These masks are then utilized to obtain the corresponding masked audio, which serves as the conditional in-context learning inputs within the U-Net model.

Music Continuation Task. We demonstrate that the proposed JEN-1 model facilitates both music inpainting (interpolation) and music continuation (extrapolation) by employing the novel omnidirectional diffusion model. The conventional diffusion model, due to its non-autoregressive nature, has demonstrated suboptimal performance in previous studies (Borsos et al., 2023; Agostinelli et al., 2023). This limitation has impeded its successful application in audio continuation tasks. To address this issue, we adopt the unidirectional mode in our music continuation task, ensuring that the predicted latent embeddings exclusively attend to their leftward context within the target segment. Similarly, we simulate the music continuation process through the random generation of exclusive right-only masks. These masks are generated with varying ratios spanning from 20% to 80%.

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5. Experiment

5.1  Setup

Implementation Details. For the masked music autoencoder, we used a hop size of 320, resulting in 125Hz latent sequences for encoding 48kHz music audio. The dimension of latent embedding is 128. We randomly mask 5% of the latent embedding during training to achieve a noise-tolerant decoder. We employ FLAN-T5 (Chung et al., 2022), an instruct-based large language model to provide superior text embedding extraction. For the omnidirectional diffusion model, we set the intermediate cross-attention dimension to 1024, resulting in 746M parameters. During the multitask training, we evenly allocate 1/3 of a batch to each training task. In addition, we applied the classifier-free guidance (Ho & Salimans, 2022) to improve the correspondence between samples and text conditions. During training, the cross-attention layer is randomly replaced by self-attention with a probability of 0.2. We train our JEN-1 models on 8 A100 GPUs for 200k steps with the AdamW optimizer (Loshchilov & Hutter, 2017), a linear-decayed learning rate starting from $3e^{-5}$ a total batch size of 512 examples, $\beta_1=0.9$, $\beta_2=0.95$, a decoupled weight decay of 0.1, and gradient clipping of 1.0.

Datasets. We use total 5k hours of high-quality private music data to train JEN-1. All music data consist of full-length music sampled at 48kHz with metadata composed of a rich textual description and additional tags information, e.g., genre, instrument, mood/theme tags, etc. The proposed method is evaluated using the MusicCaps (Agostinelli et al., 2023) benchmark, which consists of 5.5K expert-prepared music samples, each lasting ten seconds, and a genre-balanced subset containing 1K samples. To maintain fair comparison, objective metrics are reported on the unbalanced set, while qualitative evaluations and ablation studies are conducted on examples randomly sampled from the genre-balanced set.

Evaluation Metrics. For the quantitative assessments, we assess the proposed method using both objective and subjective metrics. The objective evaluation includes three metrics: Fréchet AudioDistance (FAD) (Kilgour et al., 2019), Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KL) (Van Erven & Harremos, 2014), and CLAP score (CLAP) (Elizalde et al., 2023). FAD indicates the plausibility of the generated audio. A lower FAD score implies higher plausibility. To measure the similarity between the original and generated music, KL-divergence is computed over label probabilities using a stateof-the-art audio classifier trained on AudioSet (Gemmeke et al., 2017). A low KL score suggests that the generated music shares similar concepts with the reference music. Additionally, we employ the CLAP score to quantify audio-text alignment between the track description and the generated audio, utilizing the official pre-trained CLAP model. For the qualitative assessments, we follow the same experimental design (Copet et al., 2023) to qualitatively evaluate the randomly generated music samples. Human raters were involved in assessing two key aspects of the generated music: text-to-music quality (T2M-QLT) and alignment to the text input (T2M-ALI). Human raters were asked to provide perceptual quality ratings for the generated music samples on a scale of 1 to 100 in the text-to-music quality test. Besides, in the text-to-music alignment test, raters were required to evaluate the alignment between the audio and text, also on a scale of 1 to 100.

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Table 3

Ablation studies. From the baseline configuration, we incrementally modify the JEN-1 configuration to investigate the effect of each component.

Comparison methods table
JEN-1Research Paper

5.2  Comparison with State-of-the-arts

As shown in Table 2, we compare the performance of JEN-1 with other state-of-the-art methods, including Riffusion (Forsgren & Martiros, 2022), and Mousai (Schneider et al., 2023), MusicLM (Agostinelli et al., 2023), MusicGen (Copet et al., 2023), Noise2Music (Huang et al., 2023a). These competing approaches were all trained on large-scale music datasets and demonstrated stateof-the-art music synthesis ability given diverse text prompts. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluate the performance on the MusicCaps test set from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Since the implementation is not publicly available, we utilize the MusicLM public API for our tests. And for Noise2Music, we only report the FAD score as mentioned in their original paper. Experimental results demonstrate that JEN-1 outperforms other competing baselines concerning both textto-music quality and text-to-music alignment. Specifically, JEN-1 exhibits superior performance in terms of FAD and CLAP scores, outperforming the second-highest method Noise2Music and MusicGen by a large margin. Regarding the human qualitative assessments, JEN-1 consistently achieves the best T2M-QLT and T2M-ALI scores. It is noteworthy that our JEN-1 is more computationally efficient with only 22.6% of MusicGEN (746M vs. 3.3B parameters) and 57.7% of Noise2Music (746M vs. 1.3B parameters).

5.3  Performance Analysis

This section presents a comprehensive performance analysis to investigate various aspects of our proposed omnidirectional diffusion model JEN-1.

Ablation Studies. To assess the effects of the omnidirectional diffusion model, we compare the different configurations, including the effect of model configuration and the effect of different multitask objectives. All ablations are conducted on 1K genre-balanced samples, randomly selected from the held-out evaluation set. As illustrated in Table 3, the results demonstrate that i) JEN-1 incorporates the auto-regressive mode greatly benefiting the temporal consistency of generated music, leading to better music quality; ii) our proposed multi-task learning objectives, i.e., textguided music generation, music inpainting, and music-continuation, improve task generalization and consistently achieve better performance; iii) all these dedicated designs together lead to highfidelity music generation without introducing any extra training cost.

Generation Diversity. Compared to transformer-based generation methods, diffusion models are notable for their generation diversity. To further investigate JEN-1's generation diversity and credibility, we provide identical textual prompts, such as descriptions involving general genres or instruments, to generate multiple different samples. As demonstrated on our demo page, JEN-1 showcases impressive diversity in its generation outputs while maintaining a consistently high level of quality.

Generation, Generalization, and Controllability. Despite being trained with paired texts and music samples in a supervised learning manner, our method, JEN-1, demonstrates noteworthy zeroshot generation capability and effective controllability. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with generating high-quality audio from out-of-distribution prompts, JEN-1 still demonstrates its proficiency in producing compelling music samples. On our demo page, we present examples of creative zero-shot prompts, showcasing the model's successful generation of satisfactory quality music. Furthermore, we present generation examples as evidence of JEN-1's proficiency in capturing music-related semantics and exhibiting exceptional controllability incorporated with editing techniques like prompt2prompt (Hertz et al., 2022). Notably, our demo indicates that the generated music adequately reflects music concepts such as the genre, instrument, mood, speed, etc..

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6. Conclusion

In this work, we have proposed JEN-1, a powerful and efficient text-to-music generation framework that outperforms existing methods in both efficiency and quality of generated samples. Through directly modeling waveforms instead of mel-spectrograms, combining auto-regressive and non-autoregressive training, and multi-task training objectives, JEN-1 is able to generate high-quality music at 48kHz sampling rate. The integration of diffusion models and masked autoencoders further enhances JEN-1's ability to capture complex sequence dependencies in music. Our extensive quantitative and human evaluations demonstrate JEN-1's superiority over strong baselines in subjective quality, diversity, and controllability. JEN-1 also excels at music completion and continuation tasks under the multi-task training regime. These results highlight the effectiveness of our techniques in modeling music waveforms and the advantages of the unified framework. This research pushes the frontier of text-to-music generation and provides a compelling solution for high-quality, semantically controllable music synthesis from text. Potential future directions include incorporating external knowledge to enhance controllability, and extending the framework to other cross-modal generation tasks. We hope our work will inspire more efforts on developing generative models that create impactful and realistic art. As text-to-music generation matures from research into practical applications, it bears great potential to augment human creativity and reshape how people compose, share, and appreciate music.

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